Graphic Novel: “They Called Us Enemy”

They Called Us Enemy

by George Takei (co-writer), Justin Eisinger (co-writer), Steven Scott (co-writer), Harmony Becker (Artist) 

A stunning graphic memoir recounting actor/author/activist George Takei’s childhood imprisoned within American concentration camps during World War II. Experience the forces that shaped an American icon — and America itself — in this gripping tale of courage, country, loyalty, and love.

George Takei has captured hearts and minds worldwide with his captivating stage presence and outspoken commitment to equal rights. But long before he braved new frontiers in Star Trek, he woke up as a four-year-old boy to find his own birth country at war with his father’s — and their entire family forced from their home into an uncertain future.

In 1942, at the order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, every person of Japanese descent on the west coast was rounded up and shipped to one of ten “relocation centers,” hundreds or thousands of miles from home, where they would be held for years under armed guard.

They Called Us Enemy is Takei’s firsthand account of those years behind barbed wire, the joys and terrors of growing up under legalized racism, his mother’s hard choices, his father’s faith in democracy, and the way those experiences planted the seeds for his astonishing future.

What is American? Who gets to decide? When the world is against you, what can one person do? To answer these questions, George Takei joins co-writers Justin Eisinger & Steven Scott and artist Harmony Becker for the journey of a lifetime.

(Goodreads.com)

Register to Vote and Check or Change Registration

Learn if you’re eligible to vote, how to register, check, or change your information. Find the deadline to register to vote in your state. (usa.gov)

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Register to Vote

If you need to register to vote, visit Vote.gov. Depending on your state’s voter registration rules, the site can help you

  • Register online. This is available for 38 states plus the District of Columbia.
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Learn About the Voting Process

If you have questions about the steps involved in voting, these guides may help.

Check or Change Your Voter Registration

Every state runs elections in its own way. This includes how states manage voter registration information. Your state or local election office will have the details on how to change your voter registration.

Check to Ensure Your Voter Registration is Active and Accurate

It’s critical to update your name or permanent address if they change. And keeping your political party up-to-date is required in many states to take part in a party’s primary elections or caucuses.

If you’ve moved permanently to another state, you must register to vote in the new state.

Even if none of your information has changed, you should check your registration before every election you want to vote in. This is vital if you haven’t voted recently. Your state may have dropped your registration from its rolls or changed your polling place.

How to Check and Change Your Voter Registration Information

Verify Your Information to Avoid Having to Cast a Provisional Ballot

Each state has its own process for keeping its voter registration lists up-to-date. Most purge, or delete, the names of inactive voters.

You may have to cast a provisional ballot if you go to vote and find that:

  • Your registration has been purged
  • Your polling place has changed
  • The name or address on your voter ID isn’t an exact match for the information in your voter registration

Many states require you to present additional proof of identity within a couple of days of the election if you cast a provisional ballot. Otherwise, your provisional ballot won’t count.

More Information About Political Party Preference

  • Party preference doesn’t matter in general elections. You can vote for any candidate.
  • You don’t have to join a political party or reveal your party preference when you register to vote.
  • Not every state accepts or lists a party affiliation on a voter registration card.

If You’ve Recently Registered to Vote or Changed Your Registration

Video: Guide for the New Voter

If you’re getting ready to vote for the first time, this short video can help. It goes over the basic requirements for voting in the U.S., and explains why it’s important to know your state’s specific rules for voting.

  • Show the Video Transcript

Voter Registration Deadlines

Every state except North Dakota requires citizens to register if they want to become voters. Depending on your state, the registration deadline could be as much as a month before an election. 

Check the U.S. Vote Foundation to find your state’s deadline for registering. You can also check your state or territory’s election office for more details. 

Video: Guide for Checking Your Registration

If you have already registered to vote, you may want to check your registration to make sure it is up-to-date. This short video will explain why it is important to check and how easy it is to do.

  • Show the Video Transcript

Voting Rules in the U.S. Are Different in Every State

Federal and state elections in the United States are run by the states, according to Article I and Article II of the Constitution. No two states run their elections exactly the same. Contacting your state or local election office is the best way to find out about your state’s unique election rules.

The Basic Steps to Vote are the Same in Most States

Despite the differences in how states run elections, the basic voting process is the same almost everywhere.

  • Every state except North Dakota requires you to register to vote.
  • Every state has absentee voting.
  • Most states assign you a specific polling place, or voting location. A few states have ballot drop sites instead.

Voting Guides Explain the Basics

These voting guides explain the basics of voting, no matter where you live:

Who Can and Who Can’t Vote

Check with your state or local election office for any questions about who can and cannot vote. Use this interactive map to learn more about what type of ID if any is required to vote in your state.

Who Can Vote?

You can vote in U.S. elections if you:

  • Are a U.S. citizen
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    • In some states, you can register to vote before you turn 18 if you will be 18 by Election Day.
  • Are registered to vote by your state’s voter registration deadline. North Dakota does not require voter registration.

Who CAN’T Vote?

Whose Options Are Limited Due to Primaries, Caucuses or Political Party?

  • No one’s. In the general election, you can vote for any presidential candidate on the ballot from any party:
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    • Regardless of who you voted for in the primaries or caucuses
    • Regardless of whether you’re registered with a political party or not

Who May Have Problems Voting Due to State or Local Requirements?

  • People who don’t present the types of voter ID required in their state
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  • People whose name or address on their ID doesn’t match the name or address on their voter registration
  • People who go to vote on Election Day at a polling place that is not their assigned polling location

Who May Have Problems Voting Due to Logistics?

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Greta Thunberg’s Speech in United Nations General Assembly, September 23, 2019

PBS NewsHour

Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg chastised world leaders Monday, Sep. 23, for failing younger generations by not taking sufficient steps to stop climate change. “You have stolen my childhood and my dreams with your empty words,” Thunberg said at the United Nations Climate Action Summit in New York. “You’re failing us, but young people are starting to understand your betrayal. The eyes of all future generations are upon you. And if you choose to fail us, I say we will never forgive you,” she added. Thunberg traveled to the U.S. by sailboat last month so she could appear at the summit. She and other youth activists led international climate strikes on Friday in an attempt to garner awareness ahead of the UN’s meeting of political and business leaders.

Hong Kong protesters take over shopping centre, fold origami cranes

Issued on: 22/09/2019 – (France24.com)

Text by:NEWS WIRES|Video by:Solange MOUGIN

Young protesters, many wearing masks to disguise their identity, filled the open area of a Hong Kong shopping centre on Sunday and folded paper “origami” cranes in the latest twist in a pro-democracy movement that has stretched into a fourth month.ADVERTISING

The protestors first chanted slogans and sang a song that has become their anthem, backed by a small group playing on woodwind and brass instruments through their masks. Many lined the balustrades of the three higher floors overlooking where others gathered in the wide space below.

Transit authorities closed the two stations on the airport express train to guard against a possible disruption of transportation to the transportation hub.

The Hong Kong International Airport Authority said that the train would operate only between the airport and the terminus station in the center of the city on Sunday. Some airport bus routes were also suspended. Passengers were advised to leave sufficient time to reach the airport.

The latest gathering came after a night of violent clashes in which the police used tear gas and rubber rounds against protesters who threw gasoline bombs toward them and set fires in streets.

The protests generally begin peacefully, but often degenerate into confrontations that hard-line protesters say is needed to get the government’s attention.

Hong Kong’s leader, Chief Executive Carrie Lam, has agreed to withdraw an extradition bill that first sparked the protests in June. But the anti-government protesters are pressing other demands, including fully democratic elections in the semi-autonomous Chinese city and an independent investigation of complaints about police violence during earlier demonstrations.

Protesters say Beijing and Lam’s government are eroding the “high degree of autonomy” and Western-style civil liberties promised to the former British colony when it was returned to China in 1997.

The unending protests are an embarrassment for China’s Communist Party ahead of Oct. 1 celebrations of its 70th anniversary in power. Hong Kong’s government has canceled a fireworks display that day, citing concern for public safety.

(AP)

Youth flood Market Street to demand climate action

A young woman holds a sign as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students chant as they march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

People hold signs as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students chant as they march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students chant as they march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

People hold banners with demands as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Two young women draw eyes on the ground to target Bank of America for their role in funding fossil fuel projects thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman draws a message on the ground to target Bank of America for their role in funding fossil fuel projects thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Two youth hold a banner to target Bank of America for their role in funding fossil fuel projects thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Two young women wear bandanas over their faces as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman holds a sign as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

People hold signs as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Young women chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman holds a sign as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students chant as they march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

People hold signs as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students chant as they march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students chant as they march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

People hold banners with demands as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Two young women draw eyes on the ground to target Bank of America for their role in funding fossil fuel projects thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman draws a message on the ground to target Bank of America for their role in funding fossil fuel projects thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Two youth hold a banner to target Bank of America for their role in funding fossil fuel projects thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman leads a chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Two young women wear bandanas over their faces as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman holds a sign as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

People hold signs as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

Young women chant as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)

A young woman holds a sign as thousands of students march down Market Street to participate in the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. (Kevin N. Hume/S.F. Examiner)Next

Thousands of young people chanted as they marched down Market Street to demand greater action to combat climate change as part of the global Youth Climate Strike on Friday, Sept. 20, 2019.

September 11 memorial: New York Times article from April 1999 outlining bin Laden’s objection to U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia

By Tim Weiner

  • April 13, 1999 (NYTimes.com)

American commandos are poised near the Afghan border, hoping to capture Osama bin Laden, the man charged with blowing up two American embassies in Africa eight months ago, senior American officials say.

But they still do not know how to find him. They are depending on his protectors in Afghanistan to betray him — a slim reed of hope for one of the biggest and most complicated international criminal investigations in American history.

Capturing Mr. bin Laden alive could deepen the complications. American officials say that so far, firsthand evidence that could be used in court to prove that he commanded the bombings has proven difficult to obtain. According to the public record, none of the informants involved in the case have direct knowledge of Mr. bin Laden’s involvement.

For now, officials say, Federal prosecutors appear to be building a case that his violent words and ideas, broadcast from an Afghan cave, incited terrorist acts thousands of miles away.

In their war against Mr. bin Laden, American officials portray him as the world’s most dangerous terrorist. But reporters for The New York Times and the PBS program ”Frontline,” working in cooperation, have found him to be less a commander of terrorists than an inspiration for them.

Enemies and supporters, from members of the Saudi opposition to present and former American intelligence officials, say he may not be as globally powerful as some American officials have asserted. But his message and aims have more resonance among Muslims around the world than has been understood here.

”You can kill Osama bin Laden today or tomorrow; you can arrest him and put him on trial in New York or in Washington,” said Ahmed Sattar, an aide to Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, the blind Egyptian cleric convicted of inspiring the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993. ”If this will end the problem — no. Tomorrow you will get somebody else.”

Interviews with senior American officials and knowledgeable observers of Mr. bin Laden in Pakistan, Sudan and elsewhere suggest that there is widespread support among ordinary people in the Muslim world for his central political argument: that American troops should get out of Saudi Arabia. The embassy bombings, they note, took place eight years to the day after the G.I.’s were ordered onto Saudi soil.

The interviews also raise questions about key assertions that have been made by the Government about Mr. bin Laden. Senior intelligence officials concede that their knowledge of him is sketchy.

”We can’t say for sure what was going on” with him from 1991 to 1996 — most of the years covered in the indictment — one senior official said.

His Affluence Seems Overstated

Present and former American officials and former business associates of Mr. bin Laden say he appears to control only a fraction of the $250 million fortune that the American Government says he possesses.

”Clearly, his money’s running out,” said Frank Anderson, a former senior Central Intelligence Agency official who maintains close Middle Eastern contacts.

Larry Johnson, the State Department deputy counterterrorism director from 1988 to 1993, said Administration officials had ”tended to make Osama bin Laden sort of a Superman in Muslim garb — he’s 10 feet tall, he’s everywhere, he knows everything, he’s got lots of money and he can’t be challenged.”

Milton Bearden, a retired senior C.I.A. official who ran the agency’s war in Afghanistan and retired in 1995, said the Government had ”created a North Star” in Mr. bin Laden.

”He is public enemy No. 1,” Mr. Bearden said. ”We’ve got a $5 million reward out for his head. And now we have, with I’m not sure what evidence, linked him to all of the terrorist acts of this year — of this decade, perhaps.”

Political leaders in Sudan and Pakistan who have met Mr. bin Laden describe him as intelligent, soft-spoken, polite. They also say he is deadly serious about his violent brand of radical politics and capable of killing in God’s name.

Mr. bin Laden was born into the ruling class of Saudi Arabia. His father was the favorite construction magnate of the Saudi royal family, who gave Mr. bin Laden’s family huge contracts to renovate the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and build palaces for Saudi princes.

American officials calculated Mr. bin Laden’s fortune by estimating the family fortune at $5 billion and dividing by 20, the number of male heirs. But business associates of Mr. bin Laden said his family cut him off years ago and are managing his share of his inheritance for him as long as he is disowned. Business associates say that Mr. bin Laden has been living on a generous allowance from his eldest brother and that his assets in Saudi Arabia are now frozen.

In 1980, at 22, Mr. bin Laden left Saudi Arabia and moved to the Afghan frontier. In Peshawar, Pakistan — working alongside, but never directly allied with, the C.I.A. — he used his money and his machines to help the Afghan rebels fight the Soviet Army invaders.

The Afghan war shaped Mr. bin Laden, those who know him say. ”He is an ordinary person who is very religious,” said President Omar Hassan al-Bashir of Sudan, who met Mr. bin Laden often from 1992 to 1996. ”He believes in the rule of Islam and where possible the establishment of an Islamic state. The time that he spent in Afghanistan led him to believe that this might be achieved through military means.”

Legend has it that Mr. bin Laden fought bravely against Soviet troops. But former C.I.A. officers say he was a financier, not a warrior — ”a philanthropist supporting a number of health care, widows-and-orphans charity operations in Peshawar for Afghan refugees,” as Mr. Anderson put it.

He also helped create a headquarters called Al Qaeda, the Base. It was a way station in Peshawar where Egyptian and Saudi volunteers rested before setting off for battle in Afghanistan. Its name became a kind of flag uniting Mr. bin Laden’s followers. American officials call it a global terrorist network.

When the Soviet forces left Afghanistan in 1989, Mr. bin Laden went home to Saudi Arabia. He soon set his sights on the last remaining superpower.

”He himself was very much wary about America,” said Saad al-Faqih, a Saudi exile living in London, who worked as a surgeon for wounded Afghan fighters, ”very skeptical about America and the Saudi regime.”

He found a new enemy on Aug. 7, 1990, when the United States began sending half a million soldiers to Saudi Arabia, preparing for war against Iraq.

”One of the stories put out by bin Laden is that he went to King Fahd and promised that he would raise holy warriors who would protect Saudi Arabia,” said Mr. Anderson, who was the chief of the C.I.A.’s Near East operations in the mid-1990’s. ”His violent opposition to the Saudi royal family began when King Fahd denied or rejected that offer.”

Americans Painted As New Crusaders

To Mr. bin Laden the deployment of Americans in the land of Mecca and Medina smacked of the Crusades, the Christian religious wars against Islam that began nine centuries ago. His rage transformed him into a stateless outlaw.

In November 1991, Saudi intelligence officers caught Mr. bin Laden smuggling weapons from Yemen, his father’s homeland. They withdrew his passport. Soon afterward he made his way to Sudan, which had decreed its borders open to all Muslims, with or without passports or visas.

Veterans of the Afghan jihad, or holy war, against Moscow followed Mr. bin Laden, under Al Qaeda’s banner. But ”when Al Qaeda was moved to Sudan, it lost around 70 percent of its members,” Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, accused of being an associate of Mr. bin Laden, said during an interrogation by the German police after his arrest in September.

”This group didn’t have a purpose except to carry out the jihad,” Mr. Salim said, ”and since nobody carried out the jihad, it lost a lot of its members.”

He Lived As an Investor

There were three kinds of men in Al Qaeda, he said. First, ”people who had no success in life, had nothing in their heads and wanted to join just to keep from falling on their noses.” Second, ”people who loved their religion but had no idea what their religion really meant.” And third, ”people who have nothing in their heads but to fight and solve all the problems in the world with battles.”

Mr. bin Laden lived in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, ”as an investor,” said President Bashir. ”With his money, he was adventurous, and probably he gained this mentality by his experiences as a fighter.”

The indictment against Mr. bin Laden says he provided training camps in Sudan where Afghan war veterans prepared for terrorist missions. But a senior American intelligence official contradicted that, saying, ”There was never a bin Laden-financed training camp in Sudan.”

The official added: ”In 1993, ’94, ’95, he’s managing and building up his legitimate business presence there in Sudan. I won’t pretend we’ve got a good intelligence base on this period, but we think he was laying the groundwork for Al Qaeda.”

In 1995 two C.I.A. officers were stalked by teen-age followers of Mr. bin Laden in the streets of Khartoum. ”Bin Laden was approached by us and was told that this would not be tolerated,” said Ghazi Salaheldin, the Sudanese Information Minister. Sudan expelled the teen-agers.

In the face of such perceived threats — though some were mirages, based on a slew of false C.I.A. reports — the United States withdrew from Sudan in late 1995. The absence of American diplomats and spies in the country diminished Washington’s ability to know what Mr. bin Laden was doing at the very moment he stepped up his political war.

In 1995, after the Saudi Government rescinded his citizenship, he began sending scathing attacks on the royal family from Khartoum.

”Bin Laden took a chance and started doing some political activities,” President Bashir said, ”not terrorist activities, but he started issuing political bulletins and communiques and faxes” denouncing the Saudi Government as corrupt and repressive.

The United States took notice. ”There had been confusion” after the World Trade Center bombing about the nature of radical Islamic threats to the United States, said Mr. Johnson, the former senior counterterrorism official.

No Evidence To Implicate Him

”There were lots of theories, not very good intelligence, and so the intelligence community actually started generating a picture that Osama bin Laden was, if you will, the new face of terrorism,” he said.

On May 31, 1996, four Saudis were beheaded after confessing to bombing a Saudi National Guard post in Riyadh and killing five Americans. All told their interrogators that they had received Mr. bin Laden’s communiques. Only 25 days later, a truck bomb tore through a military post in Dhahran, killing 19 American soldiers.

Mr. bin Laden was blamed by American officials for instigating the attacks. But no known evidence implicates him, and the Saudi Interior Minister, Prince Nayef ibn Abdel Aziz, has absolved him. ”Maybe there are people who adopt his ideas,” Prince Nayef said. ”He does not constitute any security problem to us.”

Shortly before the Dhahran attack, Mr. bin Laden and members of his entourage left Sudan in a C-130 military transport plane. The Sudanese had asked him to leave — at the request of the United States. Mr. bin Laden landed at an American-built airport in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Three months later, on Aug. 23, 1996, he declared war on the United States.

”The situation in Saudi Arabia is like a great volcano about to erupt,” his declaration stated. ”Everyone talks openly about economic recession, high prices, debt” and ”the filling up of the prisons.”

How Did He Control the Bombers?

Mr. bin Laden’s criticisms of Saudi repression and corruption closely corresponded with State Department reports and C.I.A. analyses. But Mr. bin Laden blamed the United States. ”The root of the problem is the occupying American enemy,” he proclaimed, ”and all efforts should focus on killing, fighting and destroying it.”

A second, more ominous warning from him came on Feb. 23, 1998: ”To kill Americans and their allies, both civil and military, is an individual duty of every Muslim who is able, in any country where this is possible,” until American armies, ”shattered and broken-winged, depart from all the lands of Islam.”

Then came the embassy bombings last August. American authorities say the men who attacked the embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were controlled by Mr. bin Laden. But they still have no clear idea how.

Despite efforts at the highest levels of the United States Government, Mr. bin Laden and his closest associates remain isolated in Afghanistan.

It is difficult to say precisely where the criminal case against Mr. bin Laden stands. Prosecutors have obtained unusually restrictive court orders that bar the defendants and their lawyers from communicating with virtually anyone.

The Case Runs Out of Steam

Publicly, at least, the case has lost momentum. While two men suspected of being bombers were quickly apprehended, many other suspects are still at large. The last arrest was more than six months ago. A spokesman for the United States Attorney in Manhattan declined comment.

Now the hunt for Mr. bin Laden depends on whether the Taliban, his radical hosts in Afghanistan, will betray him. The United States has little leverage with the Taliban, and little fresh intelligence on how to capture Mr. bin Laden. It has no spies in Afghanistan and little new information on precisely how he might have instigated the deadly bombings.

”I do not have a clear picture yet of what happened when,” said Prudence Bushnell, the United States Ambassador to Kenya, who was wounded in the bomb blast, which killed 12 of her colleagues. ”I may not ever have a clear picture of what happened when. None of us may.”

A COLLABORATION

This article resulted from a collaboration between The New York Times and the PBS program ”Frontline,” which will broadcast a documentary tonight about Osama bin Laden that will run on most PBS stations at 9 o’clock. The ”Frontline” program was based on the work of Lowell Bergman, correspondent, Martin Smith, producer, and Orianna Zill and Ivana Damjanov, associate producers.

ON THE WEB

Past coverage of Mr. bin Laden, the 1998 bombings of the American embassies in East Africa and the American response to terrorism is available from The New York Times on the Web:

www.nytimes.com/ internationalWe are continually improving the quality of our text archives. Please send feedback, error reports, and suggestions to archive_feedback@nytimes.com. A version of this article appears in print on April 12, 1999, Section A, Page 1 of the National edition with the headline: U.S. Hard Put to Find Proof Bin Laden Directed Attacks. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe

Trump addresses California homelessness, local officials respond

SEPTEMBER 18, 2019 (dailycal.org)

WIKIMEDIA/CREATIVE COMMONS

BY KATE FINMAN | STAFFLAST UPDATED 2 DAYS AGO

President Donald Trump visited California this week with Ben Carson, secretary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD, to discuss the state’s homelessness issue among other topics.

According to data from the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, California has the highest number and highest percentage of homeless residents of any state in the country. The city of Berkeley alone has over 1,000 homeless residents, according to this year’s point-in-time count — and the number has been rising in recent years.

Trump has publicly said he is looking into allocating federally owned buildings to be homeless shelters, among other ideas. He also mentioned changing housing policy. Trump’s federal plans for combatting homelessness, however, were not welcomed by all — especially in Berkeley.

“We can’t let Los Angeles, San Francisco and numerous other cities destroy themselves by allowing what’s happening,” Trump said to reporters Tuesday. “We have people living in our … best highways, our best streets, our best entrances to buildings.”

Before the president’s visit, California Gov. Gavin Newsom sent a letter to Trump, asking for federal help with the “national crisis” on behalf of a bipartisan coalition of local and state officials.

Newsom specifically asked for vouchers to assist low-income Americans and veterans with paying rent and finding housing.

“We all agree that homelessness is a national crisis decades in the making that demands action at every level of government,” Newsom said in the letter. “In California, state and local governments have ramped up action to lift families out of poverty by investing in behavioral health, affordable housing, and other homeless programs.”

Carson denied this request in a letter written to Newsom on behalf of Trump, stating that Newsom’s proposals fail to take responsibility as a state for the issue.

This disappointed many people, including Berkeley Mayor Jesse Arreguín, who said he believes the solution to homelessness is increased housing.

“If the federal government is serious about addressing our nation’s homelessness crisis, they must provide a humanitarian approach that addresses issues such as affordable housing, income disparities, and mental health,” Arreguín said in an email. “We stand ready to work (with) collaboratively in developing solutions to fix the safety net and lift up our most vulnerable residents.”

Arreguín added that he did not think criminalizing poverty was the answer either.

Local homeless activist Mike Zint said he agreed with efforts to provide housing for the homeless rather than shelters. He said services are important for mitigating the homelessness crisis, and added that HUD could help with this.

“We (homeless people) get wet, cold on warm days, blown by the wind, chased by cops, told to leave, get stepped on by society, and have the richer people crushing us with their unqualified opinions about us,” Zint said in an email. “If the president was serious about helping poor Americans … he would start talking to the true experts in homelessness, the homeless.”

Kate Finman is the lead student government reporter. Contact her at kfinman@dailycal.org and follow her on Twitter at @KateFinman_DC.

Occupy San Francisco 8th anniversary (September 17, 2011 to September 17, 2019)

September 17, 2012 (sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com)

SAN FRANCISCO (CBS SF) — Occupy San Francisco protesters returned to Justin Herman Plaza Monday evening vowing to “retake” the site of their previous encampment.ADVERTISING

The plaza along the Embarcadero—dubbed Bradley Manning Plaza by the protesters for a former U.S. Army intelligence analyst accused of leaking classified information to WikiLeaks—was turned into a bustling camp late last year before protesters were told to evacuate the plaza by city officials.

Protesters returned to the plaza Monday night following a day of rallies and marches to mark the one-year anniversary since the beginning of the Occupy Wall Street movement in New York.

 Marches through downtown San Francisco streets Monday afternoon disrupted traffic and Muni service sporadically before a 5 p.m. rally in front of 555 California St.

PHOTOS: Occupy SF One Year Anniversary March

Following the rally, several hundred protesters marched to Wells Fargo headquarters at 420 Montgomery St., gathering there for several hours.

A brass band was among those marching, and another group stood behind a large yellow banner proclaiming themselves “Foreclosure Fighters,” the banner’s background scrawled with the names of banks and investment firms like Fannie Mae and Chase.

The protesters chanted as they marched, including Occupy mainstays like “Banks got bailed out, we got sold out” and appropriated chants for the day like, “The system has got to die, happy birthday Occupy.”

Outside of Wells Fargo’s headquarters, demonstrators threw debt slips and financial paperwork into a trashcan, symbolically sending the banks a message that they did not intend to repay their debts.

Others painted a large yellow mural on the street that said, “Democracy not debt.”

One protester, Scott Rossi, said he had been with Occupy SF from the beginning and that he was heartened to see such a large turnout for Monday’s rally and march.

Rossi said that Monday’s crowd appeared to be a little more militant and radical than the crowds Occupy protests initially drew last year.

Protesters then marched back through city streets, eventually arriving at Justin Herman Plaza around 9 p.m., where they remained tonight vowing to “retake” the plaza. No arrests have been reported.

(Copyright 2012 by CBS San Francisco and Bay City News Service. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.)

Teachers and Walmart Workers Top List as Sanders Campaign Hits 1 Million Individual Donors

September 19, 2019 by Common Dreams

With 99.95 percent of those who gave still able to do so again, 2020 candidate says record milestone—reached faster than any other campaign in history—”is astonishing.”

by Jon Queally, staff writer

Presidential Candidate Bernie Sanders speaks during the AFL-CIOs first-ever Presidential Summit in Philadelphia. (Photo: Preston Ehrler/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)

Presidential Candidate Bernie Sanders speaks during the AFL-CIOs first-ever Presidential Summit in Philadelphia. (Photo: Preston Ehrler/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)

The presidential campaign of Sen. Bernie Sanders said it made political history on Thursday by receiving campaign donations from 1 million individuals in the shortest amount of time.

“With 1 million contributors, this is the only Democratic campaign that has more supporters than Donald Trump,” said campaign manager Faiz Shakir in a statement.

“Our strength is in numbers,” continued Shakir, “and that is why Bernie Sanders is the only candidate who is able to say his campaign will rely only on grassroots funding in both the primary and against Donald Trump. Like all campaigns we are beholden to our donors, and we’re proud to stand with one million working people.”    

Out of the more than 1 million individual who have now given, according to the campaign, only .05 percent have given the maximum amount this election cycle, meaning that the other 99.95 percent are able to give again or multiple times.  The campaign also announced that is has more than 125,000 people signed up for recurring contributions each month—money, it said, that provides “a consistent stream of reliable investment that will last throughout the campaign and build the organization required to win the nomination and defeat Donald Trump.”

In its statement, the campaign touted that the occupation topping the list of donors is teachers and that the most common employer of those donating to Sanders’ presidential bid remains Walmart, Starbucks, and Amazon.

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Book: “Permanent Record”

Permanent Record

Permanent Record

by Edward Snowden

Edward Snowden, the man who risked everything to expose the US government’s system of mass surveillance, reveals for the first time the story of his life, including how he helped to build that system and what motivated him to try to bring it down.

In 2013, twenty-nine-year-old Edward Snowden shocked the world when he broke with the American intelligence establishment and revealed that the United States government was secretly pursuing the means to collect every single phone call, text message, and email. The result would be an unprecedented system of mass surveillance with the ability to pry into the private lives of every person on earth. Six years later, Snowden reveals for the very first time how he helped to build this system and why he was moved to expose it.Spanning the bucolic Beltway suburbs of his childhood and the clandestine CIA and NSA postings of his adulthood, Permanent Record is the extraordinary account of a bright young man who grew up online—a man who became a spy, a whistleblower, and, in exile, the Internet’s conscience. Written with wit, grace, passion, and an unflinching candor, Permanent Record is a crucial memoir of our digital age and destined to be a classic.

(Goodreads.com)